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The apple was first domesticated in Kazakhstan. These "Wild Apples," as they are formally named, grow in an ancient orchard at the Panfilovsky Farm outside Almaty. They are believed to be remnants of primeval forests and are currently subjects of apple genetic studies. Horticulturists believe seeds and cuttings from these orchards spread on ancient trade routes to the Middle East, Europe, and across the Bering Straits into North America. The name Almaty translates as "Father Apple."